Preventing Osteoporosis With Exercise. 

 January 11, 2024

By  Linda Rook

knee bone density.


The condition of Osteoporosis can cause weakened bones, and lead to an increased risk of bone fracture. It is often associated with ageing, particularly among postmenopausal women, but it can affect anyone. One of the most effective ways to prevent osteoporosis is through regular exercise. This blog explores the various exercises that contribute to bone health and prevent osteoporosis, delving into their physiological benefits and practical implementation.

Understanding Osteoporosis.

What is Osteoporosis?

Osteoporosis is a skeletal disorder where bone mass diminishes and bone tissue deteriorates, leading to fragile bones and a higher susceptibility to fractures, especially in the hip, spine, and wrist. Bone density decreases as the bone remodelling process, which involves the resorption of old bone and the formation of new bone, becomes imbalanced with age.

Risk Factors.

Several risk factors can contribute to developing osteoporosis, they include:

•     Age: Bone density typically peaks around age 30 and decreases thereafter.

•     Gender: Women, particularly postmenopausal women, are at higher risk due to lower bone mass and estrogen decline.

•     Genetics: A family history of osteoporosis can increase risk.

showing some bone density

Role of Exercise in Bone Health.

Physiological Mechanisms.

Exercise promotes bone health through several mechanisms:

•     Mechanical Load: Physical activity applies stress to the bones, stimulating bone-forming cells (osteoblasts) and inhibiting bone-resorbing cells (osteoclasts). This process, known as mechanotransduction, enhances bone density and strength.

•     Muscle Strengthening: Exercise increases muscle mass and strength, providing better support and stability to bones and reducing the risk of falls and fractures.

•     Hormonal Balance: Physical activity helps maintain hormonal balance, including estrogen and testosterone, which play crucial roles in bone remodelling.

Muscle Weakness
Elderly Gent with walking stick

Types of Exercises to Prevent Osteoporosis.

Weight-Bearing Aerobic Exercises.

When you do aerobics that involve your weight-bearing joints, the exercise helps to improve your movement. These exercises are essential for building and maintaining bone density.

1.    Walking: A low-impact, accessible form of exercise that improves bone health in the hips and lower spine.

2.    Jogging and Running: Higher-impact exercises that provide greater stimulus for bone formation, especially beneficial for younger individuals.

3.    Stair Climbing: Engages the lower body muscles and strengthens bones in the hips and legs.

4.    Dancing: Combines weight-bearing with fun, making it an enjoyable way to enhance bone density.

Resistance Training.

Resistance training, or strength training, involves exercises that use resistance to induce muscle contraction, leading to muscle and bone strengthening.

1.    Weight Lifting: Using free weights, machines, or body weight to perform exercises like squats, deadlifts, and bench presses. These exercises target major muscle groups and bones.

2.    Resistance Bands: Provide adjustable resistance and are ideal for those who prefer low-impact strength training.

resistance bands

3.    Bodyweight Exercises: Exercises such as push-ups, pull-ups, and planks that use body weight to build strength and bone density.

Flexibility and Balance Exercises.

Improving flexibility and balance can help prevent falls, a major cause of fractures in individuals with osteoporosis.

1.    Yoga: Enhances flexibility, balance, and muscle strength through various postures and movements. Specific poses like the tree pose and warrior pose are particularly beneficial.

2.    Tai Chi: A form of martial arts that emphasizes slow, deliberate movements and balance, reducing the risk of falls.

Exercise Recommendations for Different Age Groups.

Children and Adolescents.

Bone mass accumulation during childhood and adolescence is crucial for future bone health. The following recommendations apply:

•     Activity Level: At least 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity daily.

•     Weight-Bearing Activities: Activities such as jumping, running, and playing sports like basketball and soccer.

•     Strength Training: Bodyweight exercises like push-ups and climbing.


Maintaining bone density becomes the focus for adults. Recommendations include:

•     Frequency: At least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity or 75 minutes of vigorous-intensity aerobic activity per week, along with muscle-strengthening activities on two or more days per week.

•     Exercise Types: A mix of weight-bearing aerobic exercises, resistance training, and flexibility exercises.

water aerobics.

Older Adults.

For older adults, preventing bone loss and reducing fall risk are key. Recommendations include:

•     Frequency: At least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic activity per week, with muscle-strengthening activities on two or more days per week.

•     Balance and Flexibility: Incorporate activities like Tai Chi and yoga to improve balance and flexibility.

•     Low-Impact Activities: For those with limited mobility, activities like walking, gardening, and water aerobics.

Implementing an Osteoporosis Prevention Exercise Program.

Assessment and Planning.

Before starting any exercise program, especially for individuals with existing health conditions, it’s crucial to undergo a health assessment and consult with a healthcare provider or fitness professional.

Health Assessment: Evaluate bone density, physical fitness, and any medical conditions.

Goal Setting: Set realistic, achievable goals based on individual health status and preferences.

Program Design: Create a balanced exercise program that includes aerobic, resistance, and flexibility exercises.

Safety Considerations

Ensuring safety during exercise is paramount to prevent injuries, particularly in individuals with low bone density.

Proper Technique: Learn and use correct exercise techniques to avoid strain and injury.

Progression: Gradually increase the intensity and duration of exercises to allow the body to adapt.

Supervision: For those new to exercise or with severe osteoporosis, supervision by a fitness professional is recommended.

Monitoring and Adapting the Exercise Program

Regular monitoring and adaptation of the exercise program are necessary to ensure continued progress and address any changes in health status.

Progress Tracking: Keep a log of exercises performed, duration, and intensity.

Bone Density Tests: Periodic bone density tests can help track improvements and guide adjustments in the exercise program.

Adjustments: Modify the exercise program based on progress, new health issues, or changes in physical capacity.

Additional Benefits of Exercise Beyond Bone Health

While the primary focus is on preventing osteoporosis, exercise also offers numerous additional health benefits:

Cardiovascular Health: Regular physical activity improves heart health and reduces the risk of cardiovascular diseases.

Weight Management: Exercise helps maintain a healthy weight, reducing the strain on bones and joints.

Mental Health: Physical activity enhances mood, reduces stress, and lowers the risk of depression and anxiety.

Overall Longevity: Engaging in regular exercise contributes to a longer, healthier life.

Unexplained Weight Gain

Challenges and Solutions in Promoting Exercise.

Despite the clear benefits, several challenges can impede the adoption of exercise for osteoporosis prevention. Addressing these challenges is crucial for effective implementation.

Common Challenges.

Lack of Awareness: Many people are unaware of the importance of exercise for bone health.

Motivation: Maintaining motivation for regular exercise can be difficult.

Accessibility: Limited access to fitness facilities or safe spaces for exercise can be a barrier.

Health Conditions: Existing health issues may restrict the types of exercises individuals can perform.


Education: Raise awareness about the importance of exercise for bone health through public health campaigns and education programs.

Support Systems: Establish support systems like exercise groups or classes to foster motivation and accountability.

Accessibility: Increase access to affordable and safe exercise facilities, and promote at-home exercise options.

Adaptation: Tailor exercise programs to accommodate individual health conditions and limitations, ensuring inclusivity.


Preventing osteoporosis through exercise is a highly effective strategy that benefits overall health. By incorporating a combination of weight-bearing aerobic exercises, resistance training, and flexibility and balance exercises, individuals can significantly improve bone density and reduce the risk of fractures. Tailoring exercise programs to different age groups and health statuses, ensuring safety, and addressing common challenges are essential for widespread adoption and long-term success. Through education, support, and accessibility, the barriers to exercise can be overcome, leading to healthier bones and a better quality of life for all.

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Linda Rook

Linda is now retired and has suffered from Osteoarthritis for about 40+ years.  She struggled with her weight until she found the correct one that also helped with her arthritic pain.  Linda was in terrible pain until the physician thought her right hip needed replacement. 

Now Linda has an artificial right hip, which has left her with the left leg shorter than the right.  Therefore, her spine is now wonky, and has arthritis of the lower back, also it seems to be going all over the body, her pain is now in the knees, elbow, wrist, fingers and both hips.

Linda now spends her days writing information to help others with the same conditions, so they do not suffer like Linda.

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